Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) is the pioneer anti-corruption agency set up by the Federal Government of Nigeria. It has the primary responsibility of checking corrupt practices in the Nigerian Public service and has been doing so since 1989.
The Code of Conduct Bureau originated from old institutions found in governments all over the world. It operated under different names in different countries and can be traced from as far back as the 6th century AD in the Middle East. It was established within the Islamic court of the Caliphate, to monitor the behavior and check the excesses of officials, etc.
The CCB was established in Nigeria in 1979 during the Second Republic after 13 years of military rule by the founding fathers of the first post-military constitution. The 1979 Constitution provided a list of Codes of Conduct for public officers. The military administration of Murtala /Obasanjo inaugurated a Board before handing over power to the civilian government in July, which failed to make any impact because the National Assembly of the second republic failed to pass the enabling law. Ten years later in 1989, the Bureau got its legal mandate under the Babangida regime.
The Code of Conduct provision has since then maintained a permanence of some sort, in the 5th schedule of all constitutions following thereafter; 1989, 1993, 1995 and the current 1999 constitution.